Arbeitskreis Religionsgeographie
in der
Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geographie

Band 3: Christian Missions in Africa


I. Intruduction13
II. A History of the Christian Missions in Zambia, as Seen in the Diffusion of Mission Stations23
   1. The Context: The Expansion of Christianity in Africa23
   2. The Mission Station: Centre for Missionary Activity24
   3. Early Mission Settlement up to 190028
   4. The Expansion of Mission Work Between 1900 and 192032
   5. The Inter-War Years: Advance of the Catholic Church36
   6. The Move into the Urban Areas after World War II39
III. The Churches in Zambia Today and their Spatial Distribution46
   1. Estimations of the Extent of Christianisation and the Distribution of the Different Denominations46
   2. The Catholic Church52
   3. The More Ecumenically-Orientated Protestant Churches and the Anglican Church57
      a. The United Church of Zambia (UCZ)57
      b. The Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ)60
      c. The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC)62
      d. The Anglican Church64
      e. The Salvation Army66
      f. The Lutheran Church of Central Africa 68
   4. The More Evangelically-Orientated Protestant Churches69
      a. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDA)69
      b. "Christian Missions in Many Lands" (CMML) - The Christian Brethren71
      c. The Evangelical Church in Zambia (ECZ)73
      d. The Baptist Churches74
      e. Other Small Mission Churches78
   5. Other Christian Communities83
      a. Jehovah's Witnesses83
      b. The New Apostolic Church86
      c. The Independent Churches86
   6. A Classification of the Churches Using Social-Geographical Criteria and the Problem of the "Tribal Churches"89
IV. The Influence of the Missions on Settlement Structure96
   1. Locational Factors Considered in the Founding of Mission96
   2. The Principle of Spheres of Influence and the Relationship between Missionary Societies103
   3. The Rural Focus of Missions, their Aversion to the Towns and Attitudes towards Labour Migration112
   4. The Direct Effects of Christian Missionary Activity on Settlement Structure and the Importance of Mission Stations as Service Centres116
V. The Significance of the Missions in the Development of the Educational System125
   1. The Genesis of the System of Formal Education up to 1924125
   2. The Education System in the Colonial Period, 1924 - 1964129
   3. Structural Changes in the Education System after Independence in 1964135
   4. The Missions' Contribution to Elite Formation138
VI. The Contribution of the Missions to Medical Care143
   1. The Spatial Distribution of Medical Care143
   2. Health Care in the Colonial Era145
   3. Changes in the Health System after Independence in 1964150
VII. The Impact of Missionary Activity on the Economy153
   1. The "Economic Mind", the "Spirit of Capitalism", Economic Success and Religion153
   2. Early Economic Activities of the Missions in Zambia158
   3. First Case Study: The Emergence of a Market-Orientated Agriculture in the Southern Province161
   4. Second Case Study: The Area of Chieftainess Nyanje (Eastern Province)166
   5. Third Case Study (and Excursus): Livingstonia Mission in Northern Malawi181
   6. Fourth Case Study: Zambia's North-Western Province - the Area of Work of the Brethren and of the South Africa General Mission182
   7. Fifth Case Study: Jehovah's Witnesses in Serenje District185
   8. Summary188
VIII. The Role of the Churches and Christian Organisations in the Development Field192
   1. Features of Church Development Aid192
   2. Church Development Projects in Zambia197
IX. Summary202
X. Zusammenfassung206
Map 1: Survey map of Zambia235
Map 2: Languages and ethnic groups236

last updated: 22.8.2007